"The Foundations of Vertical Water Training -
The Kopansky Method Pre-Requisite Course and the
Group Aqua Fitness Specialty Training and
Certification Course have been launched in Ontario
and Alberta thus far. All other provinces continue
to use the CALA Combined Foundations of Fitness
Theory and Aquafitness Leadership Training Course,
Part 1 & Part 2. Any person who has completed the
CALA Combined Foundations course, is not required to
complete the Vertical Water Training Course or the
Group Aqua Fitness Specialty Course."
Communication to the
Participants is Essential
aquatic environment creates communication challenges. Since
hearing is difficult, it is often more effective to cue
without words. The ability to use the instructor's body as an
effective cueing tool is a key reason why CALA trained
instructors are encouraged to lead from deck. Research in the
field of communication indicates that people "hear"
only about 7% of what is said, and the bulk of the message is
communicated non-verbally through facial expression, posture,
and actions. Effective visual cueing is a worthwhile creative
cueing involves a combination of visual and verbal
communication. To maximize the effectiveness of cues in an
verbal and visual cues brief and to the point
visual cues when possible to save your vocal cords
movement changes to allow participants to feel successful
and change one thing at a time (tempo, buoyancy adoption,
arm or leg pattern
participants carefully to see that cues were interpreted
a clear picture of the desired movement outcome
and reinforce correct alignment
and explain movement modifications
exercise purpose to heighten participant knowledge an
non-judgmental permission for participants to select
suitable exercise options
cueing energy and style to suit the class phase
a climate for self-expression, humour, fit tips and
has developed standardized verbal and visual cues as follows:
tall, using one hand, starting at the front of the
pelvis, close an imaginary zipper as you draw the hand
up the centre of the body, face and above the top of the
each hand on top of each shoulder, with shoulders
elevated. Reach the top of the head to the ceiling, push
the shoulders down, and lengthen the neck. Let the hands
slide off the ends of the shoulders in a relaxed manner.
each hand on sides of the neck with the thumbs pushing
down on each clavicle (collar bones) and the finger tips
gently pressing up under the chin, lengthen the neck
while doing this.
closed fists in the abdominal area, and reinforce the
idea that strong muscular action is expected with facial
expressions. The same type of cue can be used to
indicate tight "gluts" or strong hamstrings.
Point to the body part and close a fist at the location
where you want the mental focus and muscular effort.
both fists on the anterior superior iliac spine;
indicate that the hips are level by pointing the fists
straight ahead. Next, tilt the pelvis bowl forward and
backward, indicating that these are incorrect positions
by shaking the head "No".
both palms on the chest, draw the hands across the sides
the chest and open the arms and hands wide to each side
of the body (finish with arms abducted at chest height).
two fingers on your chin, retract your chin to indicate
that the chin is not poking forward.
Motion - Tempo Cues
a "T" shape with the hands by placing the palm
of one hand on top of the fingers of the other hand with
vertical forearm ('time-out' symbol in sports).
one arm vertical (bottom part of 'time-out' symbol
above). Make a diagonal downward slicing action across
the middle of the vertical forearm, then place the
slicing arm on top ("T").
basic format as the 1 /2 t cue, but perform two distinct
the bottom part of the 'time-out' symbol above, then show
a 'v-shape' with the fingers of the other hand, indicating
'v-shape', twice, on top of the tips of the hand that is
in a vertical position.
the hands in front of the chest, make two small upward
circling actions at the wrist.
both hands starting crossed at the wrists, at chest
height, do the "your safe" signal from
both hands in front of the body, thumbs pointing up,
make a large circle simultaneously with both hands.
Thumbs point up at the finish of the circle, to
demonstrate the idea of 'taking off" from the pool
one hand palm up, as though carrying a platter. Point
the fingers of the other hand down, toward the palm of
the first hand. Perform a cross country ski action with
the fingers of the superior hand, imitating legs which
have no contact with the pool bottom.
a slice hand position. Draw attention to the hand
position by pointing to and looking at your hand. Then,
show the arm action you want with the slice hand
a fist or fold hand position. As above, draw attention
to the hand, then show the arm action you want with the
fist or fold hand.
a flat hand position. As above, draw attention to the
hand, then show the arm action you want with the flat
a gentle point ( plantar flex) position. Draw attention
to the foot position by pointing to and looking at your
foot. Then, show the leg action you want with the
pointed foot position.
a gentle flex (dorsi flex) position. Draw attention to
the leg as above, then show the leg action you want with
the flexed foot.
the difference between a long and a short lever. Next,
emphasize the lever length that you suggest, by
demonstrating the move with that lever length option.
of Motion Cues
your hands in front of your chest, palms face each
other, about one meter apart. Look at the hands, noting
the distance they are apart. Bring the hands closer
together (about 10 cm apart) and draw attention to them
as you lip synch, "small".
small ROM signal, starting with hands about one meter
apart. Bring hands closer (about 1 /2 meter apart), lip
with hands about a half meter apart. Bring them farther
apart (about one meter apart), lip synch,
Ball Heel Landing
one hand palm up, as though carrying a platter. Place
the other hand, palm down, above the first hand. Perform
a wave-like action from the finger tips to the heel of
the top hand Then, draw attention to one foot, slowly
demonstrate a toe ball heel landing, with soft knees.
attention to a locked straight joint; shake your head
and mouth "No". With the same joint,
demonstrate a slight bend. Draw attention to the correct
position by looking at the joint, smiling, and nodding
hands high in front, almost touching in a
"prayer position". Move the hands forward and
back by laterally flexing the wrists. The forearms do
not move. Repeat the action for about 4- 6 reps then demonstrate the desired
the palm of one hand, tap the top of the head,
repeatedly. This indicates that you are going to repeat
the routine from the beginning (from the top).
both hands in front of body at about chest height or
higher, signal participants to move forward by pulling
them toward you with your hands.
both hands in front of body at about chest height or
higher, signal participants to move backward by pushing
them away from you with your hands. Waving
"goodbye" is another option.
one hand high in front of your body like a "traffic
one hand above your head, make a small circling action
at the wrist, like you are twirling a small lasso.
to side of eye(s) with finger(s), then point to area you
want them to
one hand high in front of you. Use fingers to show count
down for, "four, three" only. Use the counts
for "two and one" to demonstrate the desired
movement change. The fingers must be well spread apart
and straight. The palm of the hand faces the
to the side of the mouth and nose, do an exaggerated
cue as "change sides.
the parts of your body that will be performing the
unison move, then show "2" with your fingers
in the air, then demo the move if possible.
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